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An Expanded Conceptual Model for Research on Work, Safety, Health, and Well-being

An Expanded Conceptual Model for Research on Work, Safety, Health, and Well-being

The Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health Center for Work, Health, & Well-being is a NIOSH Total Worker Health? Center of Excellence. Its mission is to protect and promote the safety, health, and well-being of workers through integrated workplace policies, programs, and practices that foster safe and healthy conditions of work. Building on its systems-level conceptual model centered on the conditions of work, the Center has expanded this model to include employment & labor patterns and the social/political/economic environment. The Center?s three unifying themes, informed by our conceptual model, provide a framework for setting priorities to ensure that our research and dissemination efforts make a difference in improving the conditions of work.

Insufficient workplace infection-control and clustering of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors interact with poor self-rated health: a cross-sectional study among Japanese workers under COVID-19 crisis.

Insufficient workplace infection-control and clustering of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors interact with poor self-rated health: a cross-sectional study among Japanese workers under COVID-19 crisis.

For the overall population health, it is necessary to understand the long-term health effects of COVID-19 exposure. We clarified whether workplace infection-control against COVID-19 and clustering of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors exert interactive effects on SRH among Japanese workers. We find that the risk of poor SRH was higher when people were exposed to insufficient workplace infection-control combined with a cluster of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors.

Workplace Loneliness as an Explanatory Mechanism in Incivility Outcomes

Workplace Loneliness as an Explanatory Mechanism in Incivility Outcomes

Researchers have studied loneliness as a modern health epidemic leading to myriad negative health effects, yet the literature lacks evidence of loneliness? antecedents and consequences in the context of the workplace. Utilizing samples from state corrections supervisors (Sample 1) and the general working population (Sample 2), we found that loneliness at least partially explains the relationship between incivility and individual mental health (emotional exhaustion, depression, and anxiety) and organizationally relevant (increased turnover intentions, decreased job satisfaction, increased health-related absenteeism, and lower job performance) outcomes, and that workgroup civility norms appear to moderate the relationship between incivility and outcomes. Results of this study point to the importance of future research on workplace loneliness interventions.

Age Discrimination at Work: National Survey Data on Prevalence and Associations with Health and Well-Being, 2002-2018

Age Discrimination at Work: National Survey Data on Prevalence and Associations with Health and Well-Being, 2002-2018

As the workforce ages, interest has grown regarding the prevalence and possible impact of age discrimination at work. This study presents an analysis of data from a national survey in the United States in which worker-reported age discrimination was measured over a 16-year period. Findings indicated that the prevalence of workplace age discrimination remained fairly stable during this period, and that the experience of age discrimination was a significant predictor of several quality of work life measures.

Working on the railroad during COVID-19: A case study analysis on employee perceptions of safety culture

Working on the railroad during COVID-19: A case study analysis on employee perceptions of safety culture

This mixed-methods case study analysis investigates employees? perceptions of their organization?s COVID-19 response, and seeks to examine how these perceptions relate to the organization?s safety culture. Qualitative and quantitative archival survey data collected from one large freight-carrying railroad with sites across the U.S. was utilized to conduct analyses. The top five themes extracted from a bottom-up qualitative analysis of employees? open-ended responses about their organization?s COVID-19 response are presented and discussed (n = 196). Initial quantitative analyses that examine these responses in relation to employees? perceptions of their organization?s safety culture suggest that an organization?s existing safety culture may relate to its handling of the pandemic; a finding that bolsters existing literature on the many benefits of a strong organizational safety culture. Additional analyses are currently being conducted to further explore how the top five themes that emerged from open-ended comments relate to more-specific indicators of safety culture. In this way, we may be able to more finely-tune the practical implications of this work.

NIOSH Transportation, Warehousing, and Utilities Program

NIOSH Transportation, Warehousing, and Utilities Program

The TWU program collaborates with partners to identify relevant research and to help disseminate research findings and translate them into practice. The program publishes research in scientific journals and translates findings into materials that can be used by a variety of partners and stakeholders to improve the safety, health, and well-being of TWU workers. Products include scientific journal articles, fact sheets, blogs, infographics, and social media messages.

Moderating impact of resources on the relationship between covid demands and Burnout in Emergency Department Health-Care Workers

Moderating impact of resources on the relationship between covid demands and Burnout in Emergency Department Health-Care Workers

Burnout has been a major concern for all workers, but may be particularly concerning and prevalent for healthcare workers. Therefore, we examined healthcare workers before and during the Covid-19 pandemic in order to understand the extent to which the resources that workers had prior to the pandemic would help to buffer the negative impact of Covid stressors on worker health outcomes.

Paradoxical Outcomes of Workplace Mistreatment: A Review

Paradoxical Outcomes of Workplace Mistreatment: A Review

The workplace mistreatment literature commonly finds evidence of an array of negative individual and organizational outcomes due to mistreatment incidents (Schilpzand et al., 2016). However, the literature fails to prominently address the occasions in which certain forms of workplace mistreatment may be paradoxically beneficial to the target employee or organization. This poster presents a qualitative review of the workplace mistreatment literature, focused on summarizing findings from empirical studies that either indicate the processes through which workplace mistreatment leads to paradoxically positive outcomes or the circumstances under which they occur. This review highlights this gap in the literature by directly examining which individual, organizational, and other environmental factors qualify the relationships between workplace mistreatment and desirable outcomes.

Are Prosocial Job Characteristics For Everyone? The Job Impact Framework, Personality, and Emotional Labor

Are Prosocial Job Characteristics For Everyone? The Job Impact Framework, Personality, and Emotional Labor

This study examined the moderating relationships of prosocial personality, extroversion, and emotional labor on prosocial job characteristics (PSJC) and burnout and work-related negative affect. Extroversion moderated the relationship between PSJC and burnout. Contrary to hypotheses, PSJC were associated with negative affect, and low levels of deep acting buffered the relationship. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to consider detrimental outcomes from the job impact framework.

Assessing attitude toward workplace inclusivity: Development of a measure and preliminary validation evidence

Assessing attitude toward workplace inclusivity: Development of a measure and preliminary validation evidence

This study describes the initial development of a measure designed to assess attitude toward the inclusion of minority groups in the workplace. Following conceptual definition, we constructed affective, cognitive, behavioral, and motivational items; incorporated construct measures of diversity perspectives and hiring attitudes, multicultural identity, social dominance, and perceived organizational discrimination; and digitally administered to a sample of N = 210 employed respondents. Exploratory factor analysis identified four meaningful dimensions that attitude toward inclusivity that we labeled inclusive action, normative beliefs, aversive affect, and inclusive participation. Relations with external validity constructs and implications for organizations are reported.