Not all workers have the same risk of experiencing a work-related health problem, even when they have the same job. The way societies configure social and economic institutions influence workers? exposure to occupational hazards (differential exposure) as well as their ability to cope with adverse consequences of an occupational injury or illness (differential susceptibility). The Occupational Health Equity program is working to integrate a social determinants of health approach to occupational safety and health.
As the workforce ages, interest has grown regarding the prevalence and possible impact of age discrimination at work. This study presents an analysis of data from a national survey in the United States in which worker-reported age discrimination was measured over a 16-year period. Findings indicated that the prevalence of workplace age discrimination remained fairly stable during this period, and that the experience of age discrimination was a significant predictor of several quality of work life measures.
The increasing presence of employed women undergoing menopause has stimulated a growing corpus of research highlighting the complex relationship between menopause and work. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the mechanism by which menopause affects work ability and work-related well-being. In order to fill this gap in the literature, the present study examined whether and how menopausal symptoms affect the relationship between job demands, work ability, and exhaustion. In total, 1,069 menopausal women employed as administrative officers in a public organization filled out a self-report questionnaire. A moderated mediation analysis was carried out using latent moderated structural (LMS) equation. The findings of this analysis indicated that the indirect effect of work ability on the relationship between job demands and exhaustion is influenced by the exacerbating effect of menopausal symptoms on the relationship between job demands and work ability. Moreover, the conditional effect confirmed that women with high menopausal symptoms receive more exposure to the negative effects of job demands on work ability compared to women with low menopausal symptoms. The present findings may help in addressing interventions to prevent negative outcomes for menopausal women and their organizations.
In order to understand how workplace accommodations and supports impact the health and wellbeing of workers with disabilities in the US, Canada, and three Scandinavian countries, we used a crowd sourcing website to collect survey information from workers with disabilities across a variety of occupations. Disability acceptance and disability social rejection were consistently associated with organizational accommodation and treatment of workers with disabilities. COVID-19 demands and stressors were associated with increased burnout, job dissatisfaction, and stress. There were differences in how respondents perceived accommodation and treatment based on their country.
Workers with multiple minoritized social locations (or socially constructed identities and positions) are more apt to experience inequitable conditions of the work and nonwork environments that affect their health and wellbeing. The purpose of this presentation is to introduce an intersectional relational class framework and discuss how such a framework can help occupational health and safety (OHS) researchers and professionals better understand the relations between systems of power (e.g., racism, sexism, classism), the work and nonwork environments, and occupational health (OH) inequities. This intersectional relational class framework pushes forward the science and disciplines of OHS to comprehensively examine systems of power and its relation to differential OH outcomes through the interplay of the work and nonwork environments. New knowledge guided by this framework will lay the foundation for future OH equity research and practice.
The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between telework and telework-based work activities, work ability (i.e., job-related functional capacity), and well-being among workers with chronic health conditions (CHCs). The current study uses an experience sampling method to collect real-time assessments of participants? experiences. We expect the results of this study will shed light on the relationship between telework and worker health, as well as provide empirical evidence regarding the extent to which telework is a beneficial accommodation and organizational practice for workers with CHCs.
This qualitative study investigates the relationships between occupational stress and smoking as a coping mechanism among residential addiction treatment providers, many of whom are in recovery from addiction themselves. Participants described intense and stressful work environments which compromised work-home boundaries, and this contributed to high staff turnover. Participants also describe smoking as a reprieve from the stressful work environment. Some participants reported that providing vacation days as an incentive to quit smoking may improve staff health and reduce turnover, and this intervention should be further explored in other addiction treatment settings.
Informed by person-environment fit theory, this cross-sectional study examined the effects of office design (open-plan vs. enclosed offices) and organizational practices (control, voice) on the job attitudes and well-being of 100 autistic employees. Results indicated that distractions were higher and environmental satisfaction, affective commitment were lower for autistic employees in an open plan office setting than those in enclosed office spaces. Perceived control and voice had significant relationships with attitudinal and well-being outcomes. The practical implications for employers include giving autistic employees the ability to reduce open-plan obstacles in ways they see fit, while also championing organizational practices to increase fit.
This study uses past participatory data in order to investigate how the mental health, and specifically depressive symptoms, of corrections workers is impacted by perceived workplace discrimination (PWD) from peers, superiors, and inmates. Due to the changing sociodemographic makeup of the corrections workforce and its paramilitary structure, this project will then discuss how belonging to a minority group within the field of corrections (ie. women and people of color) or being less tenured on the job moderates the relationship between PWD and depressive symptoms. This study found a significant positive association between PWD and depressive symptoms and that for those who had less job tenure, there was a stronger relationship between PWD and depressive symptoms. As diversity continues to increase in corrections, these findings can be used to develop interventions to reduce mental health disparities experienced by this population and illustrates a need for more programs that target less tenured employees.
Informed by person-environment fit theory, this study qualitatively investigated the experiences of autistic employees in the office environment in relation to their well-being and job attitudes. A total of 100 autistic employees of varied industries and countries participated in this survey, and the data were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis, albeit the analyses are at present incomplete. The themes identified by this study can inform measures employers take to increase autistic employee fit in the office.